With an estimated 80% of persons with learning disabilities having difficulty in this area, it is the most common form of learning disability. It is a language-based disability in which a person has trouble processing or understanding words, sentences, or paragraphs. They may struggle with pronunciation, decoding or comprehension. Many dyslexic people are notably talented in arts and music; 3-D visual perception; athletic and mechanical ability.
This learning disability affects the ability to grasp and solve math concepts as well as concepts of time and money. People with dyscalculia often have difficulty acquiring basic number bonds, multiplication tables, manipulating numbers in their head and remembering steps in formulas and equations.
A learning disability where persons have great difficulty forming letters and writing within a defined space. Many people with dysgraphia possess handwriting that is uneven and inconsistent. Many are able to write legibly but do so very slowly. Typically, people with dysgraphia are unable to visualize letters and do not possess the ability to remember the motor patterns of letters. Writing requires a large amount of energy and time.
Dyspraxia affects areas where fine motor skills are required. Symptoms include trouble with coordination and manual dexterity. They have trouble with scissors, buttons, drawing, and writing.
NVLD is a neurological syndrome that affects mainly the right side of the brain. People with NVLD have a very strong verbal ability, remarkable memory and spelling skills, and strong auditory retention; although they possess poor social skills and have difficulty understanding facial expression and body language. Many do not react well to change and some possess poor social judgement. Some people with NVLD have poor co-ordination, balance problems and difficulty with fine motor skills.
APD is an information processing disorder. The area of difficulty is in interpreting auditory information and trouble with language development and reading. An example of this disorder is difficulty anticipating how a speaker will end a sentence.
Is difficulty in interpreting visual information. Symptoms include trouble with reading, writing and math. An example of this disorder is difficulty distinguishing letters such as “h” and “n”.
The frontal lobes of the brain are the affected areas in executive function disability. This is the area responsible for managing time and attention, the ability to switch focus, planning and organizing, remembering details, integrating information as well as internal communication barriers.